Published Saturday , on 29 July 2017, 12:17:35 by Christophe Hitayezu

Ijambo demokarasi ryabaye nk’aho ari umwihariko w’Ibihugu byateye imbere cyangwa se iby’abera (abazungu) ariko ni uko birengagiza ababivuga kuko no muri Afurika irahari. Nyamara igisobanuro cy’ijambo “Demokarasi” si umwambaro ushonnye ku buryo wakwira buri wese ku buryo demokarasi y’Ibihugu by’iburayi byanze bikunze yakwira cyangwa ikabera ibihugu by’Afurika kandi ntitugomba kumira bunguri tudakanjakanje ibivuye iyo yose. Demokarasi ni amahitamo y’abenegihugu bihitiramo ubayobora, uko abayobora n’uburyo bayoborwa gusa uko byagenda kose, icyita rusange cy’igisobanuro kidashidikanywaho ni uko demokarasi ari “Ubutegetsi bw’Abaturage, bushyirwaho n’abaturage kandi bukorera abaturage”

Kimwe mu bipimo byinshi bipimirwaho demokarasi kemeranywaho n’abahanga mu gihugu iki n’iki, igikunze kugaruka kenshi ni “amatora” n’ubwo hari n’ibindi nk’amashyaka menshi….., twibanze ku matora kuko niyo nkuru igezweho mu Rwanda, habaho gusesengura uko amatora yateguwe, mu bwisanzure bw’abaturage, ubw’abiyamamariza umwanya runaka, kubahiriza amahame ya demokarasi. Muri iyi nyandiko yacu turibanda ku mwanya wa Perezida wa Repubulika, uko umutekano mu matora wifashe by’umwihariko uko ateguwe, mu mucyo hubahirizwa uburenganzira bwa buri wese (abatora n’abatorwa). Aha kandi turanibanda mu kugaragaza uko amategeko n’amabwiriza byubahirizwa, ubwubahane hagati y’abiyamamaza, kudatukana, kudasebanya no kudakoresha imvugo nyandagazi zanakurura imyiryane, imvururu ndetse n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Uwavuga ko demokarasi nyayo mu Rwanda iciye mu matora yatangiranye n’intambara yo kubohora u Rwanda no guhagarika jenoside ntekereza ko ataba aciye inka amabere cyangwa akoze ishyano, kuko nibwo Abanyarwanda bagize uburenganzira busesuye bwo kwitorera ababayobora, mu mucyo, mu mutekano n’amahoro nta mvururu n’ubwoba nk’ibyabagaho mbere ya 1994, aho wasangaga abambari ba MRND (Interahamwe) aba CDR bari bashyigikiwe na Leta birirwa bahanganye n’aba PL, PSD (Abakombozi)… kubera amatora, kutubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu, kubuzwa uburenganzira bwo gutora no gutorwa bigendeye ku macakubiri ashingiye ku bwoko, ku idini, ku karere. Aha twibutse ko abatora ari bo batanga ubutegetsi/ubuyobozi biciye mu matora, bagatora bashingiye ku bintu byinshi kandi bitandukanye, muri byo harimo uwo babona uzateza imbere imibereho myiza, ubukungu byabo, ufite imigabo n’imigambi ifatika…. Amatora nk’inkingi ya demokarasi ikomeye, ni umwanya mwiza wo gupima akaba ari na ho haganirwa ku kamaro k’Igihugu, aha kandi abahatanira umwanya wa Perezida wa Repubulika baboneraho kugaragariza abayoboke b’amashyaka yabo, ibikubiye muri gahunda yabo, imigabo n’imigambi bazashyira mu bikorwa ubwo bazaba batowe (Political agendas), ibi bikareba abaturage bose yaba abamutoye n’abatamutoye, kuko bose baba ari abanyagihugu kandi perezida utowe, aba ari perezida w’abaturage bose.

Ubusanzwe twizera ko iyo amatora akozwe mu mutuzo, hubahirijwe amategeko, uburenganzira bwa muntu, akaba mu mucyo, mu kwishyira ukizana, bituma abayobozi batowe bazakemura ibibazo kandi bakanita ku byifuzo by’abaturage mu kuzamura imibereho myiza, ubukungu n’iterambere ryabo kandi bakibuka ko umuturage ariwe shingiro ry’ubutegetsi kandi ko ubutegetsi ari indagizo, bityo izo nshingano ahawe akaba azi neza ko igihe cyose byaba ngombwa agomba kubagaragariza ibyo abakorera (Accountability) aha wakwibaza se uti bimeze bite mu Rwanda?

Umwaka wa 2017: Igipimo cya demokarasi mu matora kuri Afurika

Uyu mwaka wa 2017, ntusanzwe ku bihugu byinshi bya Afurika kuko ibyinshi bizaba biri mu nkubiri y’amatora no kugaragaza ireme rya demokarasi, muri ibyo twavugamo nk’u Rwanda (tariki 4 Kanama 2017), Kenya (tariki 8 Kanama 2017), Angola (Kanama 2017), Liberia (Tariki 10 Ukwakira, 2017) n’Igihugu cya Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo (DRC), aha ho ariko amatariki ahora ahinduka, bityo ukaba umwaka w’indorerwamo ya demokarasi kuri bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika amatora azabamo ndetse Isi yose ikaba ibihanze amaso ibizayavamo n’uko bizayitwaramo.

Biramenyererwe by’umwihariko ko iyo u Rwanda rufite igikorwa gikomeye, uba umwanya ku miryango mpuzamahanga ivuga ko iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu, ibihugu bimwe na bimwe bivuga ko ari indorerwamo n’abarimu ba demokarasi, aho usanga bagaragaza uko amatora y’u Rwanda ateguwe ndetse bakanarenga bakagaraza uko byifashe mbere y’amatora n’uko bizagenda bashingiye ku marangamutima yabo akenshi aba abogamiye ku nyungu za bo bwite, ibi byose bishingira na none ku rwango bafitiye u Rwanda n’Abanyarwanda ariko by’umwihariko Nyakubahwa Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda, Paul Kagame, ibi na byo bifite aho bishingiye kuko yanze agasuzugura ka bo, yanga gucumbagizwa no gucibwaho urukoma nk’insina ngufi, ashyiraho demokarasi inogeye kandi ibereye abanyarwanda atishingiye uko abandi babibona, akora ibyananiye amahanga yose harimo guhagarika jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi ku manywa y’ihangu isi yose irebera (ahabuze imbaraga n’ingufu zo kurasa abicaga ngo batabare abicwaga, haboneka izo kurasa imbwa zirya imibiri y’abishwe bazira ubwoko n’ibitekerezo byabo).

Niyo mpamvu uzasanga raporo zivuga nabi u Rwanda zisohoka ari uko dufite igikorwa gikomeye, aho Abanyarwanda baba bagihugiyemo nk’amatora, icyumweru cyo kwibuka jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, inyinshi zagiye zisohoka nta n’imwe ivuga neza u Rwanda, bimeze nko gushaka kujijisha amahanga, kurindagiza no gukinga ibikarito mu maso abanyarwanda n’amahanga ku byiza u Rwanda rudahwema kugeraho. Nyamara n’ubwo bavuga ibi, bamwe muri bo badafite aho babogamiye cyangwa barenzwe nibyo biboneye mu Rwanda (kuko hari n’abakora raporo ziharabika u Rwanda batarigeze banarugeramo cyangwa se ngo banagirane ibiganiro n’Abanyarwanda ubwabo) maze, bakemeza ko u Rwanda rwakataje mu iterambere ry’imibereho myiza, ubukungu…. mu gihe ibindi bihugu byinshi byaba iby’Afuruika, Uburayi n’Amerika byabananiye nyamara bafite ubutunzi bwinshi mugihe u Rwanda nta mutungo ufatika twavuga rushingiraho uretse abaturage barwo.

Nyakubahwa Paul Kagame, Perezida w’U Rwanda, ni umwe mu ba Perezida muri Afurika bakomeye kandi bakoze ibidasanzwe ku gihugu cye, aho iterambere ry’imibereho myiza, ubukungu byihuta ku buryo budasanzwe, yabashije guhindura ibyari imbogamizi ku Rwanda nk’Igihugu kidakora ku Nyanja abihinduramo amahirwe ku benegihugu, ashyiraho uburyo bwinshi urubyiruko rubona imirimo abandi bakayihangira, ateza imbere ubucuruzi, agabanya ubukene (abari munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene) ndetse no guteza imbere ikoranabuhanga. Nyakubahwa Paul Kagame akaba umwe mu ba Perezida b’Ibihugu bakurikirwa n’abantu benshi kuri “Tweeter” kandi akayikoresha cyane mu gusakaza ibyagezweho mu Gihugu cye abicishije mu biganiro agirana n’abantu b’ingeri zose harimo kuganira n’abaturage be n’abandi bifuza kugira icyo bamenya ku Rwanda.

Amatora mu Rwanda: Ubudasa twahisemo

Afurika nk’umugabane n’ibihugu biwugize, waciriweho iteka n’abazungu ko amatora yaho byanze bikunze agomba kurangwa n’umwuka mubi, ubwoba mu baturage, guhunga, kwiba amajwi, imvururu zikurikira itangazwa ry’amajwi, guhangana kw’amashyaka, gutwika no gusahura, kwangiza ibikorwa remezo, gutukana, gushora rubanda mu bwicanyi n’andi mabi atandukanye, iyo ikaba indorerwamo tureberwamo igihe cyose hari amatora, hari n’abarengaho, bakagaragaza ibizava mu matora (amajwi) ndetse n’uzayatsinda nta kintu na kimwe bashingiyeho gifatika (Tangible Facts) kubera gusa ko Afurika ari insina ngufi icibwaho urukoma, iby’iwabo bakabitaka bagakabya nyamara amateka amaze kugaragaza ko na demokarasi biyitirira ko bafite ntayo, ingero ni nyinshi kandi za vuba aha.

Umwihariko n’ubudasa bw’amatora yo mu Rwanda, usanga imyiteguro y’amatora ari nk’imyiteguro y’ubukwe abazi imihango ikorwa bitegura ubukwe, aho usanga abaturage basabana, bamamaza amashyaka yabo atandukanye mu ituze, mu mutekano mu bwubahane, ku batwarwa mu binyabiziga byuje umutekano, aho buri mukandida yiyamamariza ahantu he atabangamiye cyangwa ngo abangamirwe n’undi bahatanira umwanya, buri wese arindiwe umutekano (uwe bwite n’uwabaje mu biganiro byo kwamamaza) ku banyamahanga ibi bikaba ihurizo rikomeye ariko noneho byagera aho hari ubufatanye ntakuka ku mashyaka mu Rwanda nk’ubu mu matora dukozaho imitwe y’intoki, amashyaka hafi ya yose nka PL, PSD, PDC,PPC, PDI….yose yashyize hamwe yemera gushyigikira umukandida watanzwe na RPF-INKOTANYI kuko nayo yemera ibyagezweho n’ubudasa bw’uwo mukandida, bemera gusigasira no kubaka U Rwanda batitaye ku byaba bibatandukanya cyangwa se ku byo batemera kimwe ndetse bakanaherekeza umukandida wa RPF-INKOTANYI aho agiye hose kwiyamamaza na bo bakanahabwa ijambo bagakangurira abayoboke babo kuzamutora banagaragaza ibyo bashingiraho, gukorera hamwe kw’amashyaka byo bikaba ikibazo gikomeye (NFPO- National Consultative Forum of Political Organisations) nk’aho gukorera hamwe, gukunda Igihugu, kureba inyungu z’Igihugu n’iz’Abanyagihugu mbere y’izabo ari ikibazo, gufatanya no gushyikirana kw’amashyaka atandukanye ntibivuze kuniga ubwisanzure nta n’ubwo bivuze kutagira demokarasi (aha baba bifuza ko twasubira mu kajagari k’imikorere y’amashyaka yabayeho mbere ya 1994) nyamara inyungu yabyo twarayibonye kuko ntawutinya ishyamba ahubwo atinya icyo yahuriyemo na cyo, ibi nabyo bikaba ubudasa bw’u Rwanda ruyobowe na Nyakubahwa Paul Kagame.

Nyakubahwa Paul Kagame, umukandida wa RPF-INKOTANYI, Bwana Philippe Mpayimana, umukandida wigenga ku mwanya wa Perezida na Dr. Frank Habineza watanzwe n’ishyaka riharanira guteza imbere ibidukikije na demokarasi mu Rwanda (Democratic Green Party) bose usanga bagaragaza imigabo n’imigambi yabo mu bwisanzure, mu mahoro, umutekano, itunze n’ubwubahane kandi ibi mvuga nabo ni abahamya bo kubyemeza, nkanashingira ku byo ngenda mbona ahantu hose biyamamariza, aho nta mukandida n’umwe udashima ibyagezweho na Nyakubahwa Paul Kagame ahubwo usanga bagaragaza ko bazashyira imbaraga mu bindi bikorwa byunganira ibyagezweho rimwe na rimwe ukaba wanasanga nta gishya bazana cyangwa bagaragariza abayoboke babo, ubu budasa butavugwaho rumwe n’abanyamahanga, ibihugu byo hanze n’imiryango ivuga ko iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu kuko bamenyereye imivundo, ubwicanyi n’ibindi bibi mu matora y’ibindi bihugu, aha akaba ari naho bashingira bavuga ko nta bwisanzure mu Rwanda buhari, nta mashyaka menshi ndetse nta batavuga rumwe na Leta bahari nkaho kuhaba ari igipimo cya demokarasi cyangwa ari itegeko, ibi kandi iwabo ntibemera ko byashoboka cyangwa byahaba ariko ahandi bumva byahaba, kuko bemeza ko n’aho ari ari aya baringa, itangazamakuru ryanizwe, ubwoba mu baturage……ibi byose bigamije gusenya no gukinga mu maso ibikarito isi igisobanuro nyacyo cya demokarasi naho wagisanga (mu Rwanda) batifuza ko ibyiza bikorwa n’Abanyarwanda ubwabo bashingiye ku muco nyarwanda, agaciro n’indangagaciro zabo, nyamara biyibagiza ko “Ntawuhisha inzu ngo ahishe umwotsi” uretse gusa kubura icyo unenga inka uti “Igicebe cyayo”, Amatora mu Rwanda yuzuye umutekano, ukwigenga, ubwisanzure, gukorera mu mucyo…. Bigaragaza ko abanyarwanda bahisemo kuba umwe batakirebera mu ndorerwamo z’amoko n’andi macakubiri cyane ko bazi ingaruka mbi byabagejejeho, ahubwo bahisemo guhurira ku cyita rusange “Ndi Umunyarwanda” maze intumbero iba iyo gutora inyangamugayo babonaho ubushobozi n’ubushishozi.

Urebye ubwitabire bwa buri mukandida aho aba yagiye hose mu kwiyamamaza, ukareba uko buri wese ashyigikiwe, ntibisaba imibare myinshi no kuraguza umutwe ngo umenye ko amatora azakorwa akanarangira mu mutekano, mu mucyo, mu bwisanzure bwa buri wese ariko by’umwihariko binaguha ishusho y’instinzi nuzayibona (n’ubwo kugira abantu benshi bitabira ibiganiro byo kwiyamamaza, bitavuze instinzi isesuye ku mukandida kuko byagiye bigaragara henshi ku isi mu bihe bya vuba).

Ubudasa bw’U Rwanda ntibukwiriye kureberwa gusa mu matora, kuko nk’ubu rushyirwa ku mwanya wa 9 ku isi mu bifite umutekano n’umutuzo imbere ya Portugal na New Zeland (Raporo WEF), u Rwanda rushyirwa ku mwanya wa kabiri ku isi mu koroshya ishoramari inyuma ya Mauritius, rukaba urwa mbere mu bihugu bigize umuryango w’Afurika y’iburasirazuba (EAC) rukaba urwa gatandatu ku isi mu bihugu bifite ubukungu bwihuta cyane muri Afurika (Mc Kinsey 7 report), u Rwanda rugashyirwa mu bihugu 50 ku bihugu 175 bigaragaramo ruswa nkeya cyangwa bigaragaza ubushake bwa politike mu kurwanya ruswa (Transprancy Interantional, 2016)…. Abanyarwanda mu budasa bwabo, banze gusindagizwa, gucibwaho urukoma no kwiha agaciro.