Published Saturday , on 2 December 2017, 01:30:11 by Christophe Hitayezu

Kuva mu myaka 23 ishize, umugore mu Rwanda yahawe ijambo, ahabwa umwanya n’amahirwe nk’ay’umugabo ndetse anatozwa kandi ashishikarizwa na Leta y’u Rwanda ko ashoboye kandi yagira uruhare mu iterambere ry’igihugu.

Kubera amateka y’u Rwanda atarabaye meza cyane cyane ku mugore mu myaka ya mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, byasabye ko Leta y’u Rwanda ishyira ingufu nyinshi mu gushishikariza abagore kugaragara mu bikorwa by’iterambere, hashyirwaho ihame ry’uburinganire binashimangirwa n’Itegeko Nshinga ryamugeneye 30% mu nzego zose za Leta.

Ryashimangiwe kandi n’ishyirwaho ry’inzego z’abagore zashyizweho kuva ku rwego rw’igihugu ndetse no mu nzego z’ibanze, hashyizweho Minisiteri y’uburinganire n’iterambere ry’Umuryango, ndetse n ’amategeko arengera umugore.

Ibi byose ni bimwe mu byashimangiye ijambo rikomeye umugore yahawe haba mu bukungu, uburezi, ubuzima, imiyoborere, umutekano ndetse n’icyizere afitiwe mu iterambere ry’umuryango n’iry’igihugu muri rusange.

Abagore begerejwe kandi bashishikarizwa kwitabira serivisi z’imari no kwibumbira mu matsinda n’amakoperative bakiteza imbere, dore ko nta na koperative yemerwa itubahirije ihame ry’uburinganire.

Abagore batunze konti mu ma banki n’ibigo by’imari bariyongereye bava kuri 5.1% mu 2006 bagera kuri 21.8% mu 2013. Mu 2012 abagore bagerwagaho na serivisi z’imari bari 36%, ariko mu 2016 bari bageze kuri 62.9%.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe muri Gashyantare 2016 n’ikigo gishinzwe amakoperative mu Rwanda (RCA) bwagaragaje ko umubare w’abagana ibigo by’imari bamaze gufunguza konti abagabo ari 51,5%, abagore bakaba 39, 5% na ho amatsinda akaba 9,1% . Ni mu gihe kandi abagabo bamaze guhabwa inguzanyo bangana na 68,9% na ho abagore ni 26,8% , mu matsinda bageze kuri 4,3%.

Abagore bibumbiye mu makoperative biteza imbere

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyizeho ikigega BDF cyishingira abagore n’urubyiruko ku ngwate bagahabwa amafaranga n’amabanki cyangwa ibigo by’imari bakiteza imbere. Umwaka ushize iki kigega cyari kimaze gufasha abagore barenga ibihumbi 33.

Abagore benshi bakangukiye imirimo y’ishoramari, batunga ingo ndetse banatanga akazi ku batari bake, twavuga nk’umubyeyi Kayitesi Immaculee w’i Busasamana i Nyanza mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo, uyu mubyeyi yarokotse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi avuga ko nta mahirwe yagize yo kwiga Kaminuza n’ubwo yari yayitsindiye ariko kubera ubuyobozi bubi amahirwe amucika atyo, ibintu byaje gutuma ayiga afite imyaka isaga 50 nyuma ya Jenoside.

Madamu Kayitesi ubu afite uruganda rutunganya ibikomoka ku mata rukorera i Nyanza, akagira abana yafashije kwiga ndetse n’abakozi ahemba ku buryo buhoraho, ibyo byose ni ibikorwa bifatika bisobanura ishingiro ry’ijambo umugore yahawe.

Uretse na Kayitesi, twanaganiriye na Murekeyisoni Sharia, utuye mu murenge wa Muhura, akarere ka Gatsibo, yemeje ko imiyoborere myiza yamufashije mu iterambere rye, yagize ati ’’Hamwe n’imiyoborere myiza nabashije gutinyuka nkora ibintu bitandukanye ngamije iterambere, nagiye nigira ku bagore bagenzi banjye. Mu by’ukuri natangije ibihumbi bibiri magana atanu(2500) mu mwaka wa 2014, nkora utuntu dutandukanye, hamwe no kumva ko hari ubuyobozi bwiza kandi bushyigikiye iterambere ry’umugore, nakomeje kugira iryo shyaka, naje gukora n’ubuyede, ngamije kubona inyongera ku gishoro’’.

Madamu Murekeyisoni yakomeje agira ati ’’Aho mu buyede nahamaze amezi 6, mpakura ibihumbi mirongo itandatu kuko nanatungaga umuryango, byamfashije kwagura ubucuruzi, ntinyuka no gukorana na Banki , ibi byose tubikesha imiyoborere myiza yakanguriraga abantu bose muri rusange n’abagore by’umwihariko, byambereye urufunguzo mu iterambere aho naguye ubucuruzi bwanjye nkacuruza ibituruka ku myumbati, ibi byaje kuvamo ko twiyubakira inzu kandi tukigurira moto n’umutware wanjye, kugeza ubu mfite aho nkorera hafatika kandi nkoresha n’abakozi, iyo hataba imiyoborere myiza ibi byose sinajyaga kubigeraho kuko sinari kwiyubaka ntatekanye’’

Uretse ubukungu n’terambere muri rusange, dutereye ijisho mu miyoborere naho ntibasigaye inyuma, abagore bari mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko ni 64%, ari nayo nteko ifite abagore benshi ku Isi kandi hari hashyizweho n’imyanya y’abadepite bahagarariye abagore mu nteko. Uyoboye Umutwe w’Abadepite ni umugore ndetse n’uwungirije perezida wa Sena. Mu badepite icyenda bahagarariye u Rwanda mu nteko ishinga amategeko y’Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, bane ni abagore.

Raporo yakozwe mu 2014, mu nzego z’ubutabera, mu Rukiko rw’Ikirenga abagore bari 43%, mu nkiko nkuru ari 30.8%, mu nzego z’Abunzi abagore bangana na 44.3%. Ba Meya bari ku 10%, ababungirije bashinzwe ubukungu bari 17%, abashinzwe imibereho myiza ni 84%, ba gitifu b’uturere ni 7%, abagize njyanama z’uturere bari kuri 43% mu gihe abari mu mirimo ya leta muri rusange abagore bari 45%.

Muri komite nyobozi z’Imidugudu abagore bari kuri 38.7% naho abagabo ari 61.3%, Inama Njyanama z’Utugari, abagore bari kuri 43.9% naho abagabo bakaba 56.1%, mu gihe mu Nama Njyanama z’Imirenge abagore bari 45.1% abagabo bakaba 54.9%.

Abagore bakomeje kugira uruhare mu miyoborere myiza kuko mu matora ya Perezida wa Repubulika ya 2017, abiyandikishije kuri lisiti y’itora bose hamwe bari 6,897,076. Abagore banganaga na 54%

Raporo ya World economic forum yo mu mwaka wa 2014, yashyize u Rwanda ku mwanya wa mbere mu bihugu bishyigikira iterambere ry’abagore, u Rwanda rwanashyigikiye bidasubirwaho gahunda ya ‘’HeForShe’’ igamije ubukangurambaga bwo guteza imbere abagore.

Abagore batinyutse imirimo yose y’iterambere n’iyitwaga iy’abagabo gusa, uyu ni Yamfasshije Olive ukora ukaza ko gutwara abagenzi kuri moto [Ifoto: Izuba Rirashe]

Mu burezi, ubw’umwana w’umukobwa bwitaweho cyane dore ko hambere umuco utamwereraga kwiga nka musaza we. Raporo ya Minisiteri y’uburezi yo mu 2011, igaragaza abakobwa mu mashuri y’incuke bari 51.4%, amashuri abanza bari 50.9%, mu mashuri yisumbuye bari 51.5%. Abakobwa bigaga siyansi bari 48.7%, imyuga ari 38.8% naho Kaminuza bakaba 43.2%.

Uretse uburezi kandi no mu mutekano abagore bafitemo umubare munini, kuva mu 2005 kugeza muri Gicurasi 2014, abapolisi 446 bari bamaze kujya mu butumwa bw’amahoro bw’Umuryango w’Abibumbye n’Umuryango wa Afurika yunze Ubumwe mu bihugu nka Sudan, Sudan y’Epfo, Haiti, Liberia, Mali, Centrafurika na Côte d’Ivoire.

Mu gisirikare n’igipolisi cy’u Rwanda naho abagore ntibahejwe, baranaruhagararira mu ruhando mpuzamahanga [Ifoto: Government of Rwanda]

Kugeza ubu Loni yemeza ko u Rwanda ari urwa gatatu mu kugira abagore benshi mu butumwa bw’amahoro bagera kuri 302, aho rubanzirizwa na Ethiopia ifite 657 na Ghana ifite 308.

Leta y’u Rwanda kandi yashyize ingufu mu burezi bw’umwana w’umukobwa, kuva mu mashuri y’incuke kugera muri kaminuza, raporo yo mu 2014 igaragaza ko mu bana bitabira amashuri y’incuke, 50.8% ari abakobwa naho abahungu bakaba 49.2%. Mu mashuri abanza abakobwa ni 50.1% naho abahungu bakaba 49.9%, mu yisumbuye abakobwa ni 52.9% naho abahungu ni 47.1%. Mu mashuri y’imyuga TVET, abakobwa ni 41.1%%. Mu mashuri makuru na za Kaminuza, abakobwa ni 44.6%.

Umugore yavanywe aho yahezwaga, ubu aragurutsa indege, uyu ni umunyarwandakazi Mbabazi Esther [Ifoto: On The Rise]

Agaciro k’umugore kandi kakunze kugaragara mu mbwirwaruhame nyinshi za Perezida Paul Kagame, agaragara ko ashoboye kandi nta gikwiye kumuheza cyangwa kumusubiza inyuma ndetse agashima uruhare rwabo mu nzego zose z’iterambere ry’igihugu.

Christophe Hitayezu na Igorora Dieudonne Iritararenga